Electricity from salt water with a efficiency of 35% will make a new membrane, 2018.10.29, 11:58
On the basis of a two-sided membrane, it is possible to construct power plants for the generation of energy in the mouths of rivers, on which it is impossible to construct hydroelectric power stations.
Scientists have proposed a way to obtain electricity from the physical process of osmosis, which manifests itself naturally in places where fresh rivers flow into salty water.
Being in a cramped metro wagon, you will immediately try to move a car with fewer passengers - this is a social manifestation of the physical process of osmosis, the spontaneous movement of substance molecules from a saturated solution to a medium with a lower concentration. Scientists have used this well-known effect to create a two-sided membrane, which allows you to extract electricity from ordinary salt water.
Positive and negatively charged salt particles dissolved in seawater freely migrate to fresh water during osmosis. By setting a barrier between the salt and fresh water in the form of a thin charged membrane, scientists created a line for the flow of particles and received an electric current.
The rapid proliferation of membranes for the generation of electricity in the process of osmosis is hampered by the rapid aging of the material; coming into disrepair, the membrane begins to pass the flow in the wrong direction, and its performance is sharply reduced.
The output has been found: the new two-way membranes have different characteristics of the sides, ranging from charge and to the size of the through-holes. Due to this solution, the stream of charged particles goes in the right direction, but can not turn back. The new material was named Janus membrane in honor of the two-faced god of ancient Roman mythology.
On the basis of a two-sided membrane, it is possible to construct power plants for the generation of energy in the mouths of the rivers, on which it is impossible to construct hydroelectric power stations. The performance of the membranes reached 35.7%, which is significantly higher than that of photovoltaic panels of solar power stations, but less than the productivity of wind turbines.